Cleaning a Long Range Precision Rifle

Cleaning A Long Range Precision Rifle

When the topic of cleaning a long range precision rifle comes up, heated debate often follows.

One school of thought is to clean the rifle’s barrel after a predetermined number of shots, the other is to shoot the rifle until it no longer produces the accuracy you’re looking for, then scrub the barrel. Which one is right? I would submit that there is no right or wrong, just different ways of thinking about it. In the course of 20 years, I have gone from cleaning my rifles after every range session, to hardly wetting a patch for months at a time. In this article I’ll share my cleaning process with you, but also explain why I don’t clean very often.

The muzzle end of a barrel is always an exit, never an entrance.

Always clean from the breech end. Using a bore guide, I start by pushing a few loose-fitting patches soaked with Shooter’s Choice through the bore. The patches are stuck to a jag on my cleaning rod. After letting the solvent sit in there for a few minutes, I soak a tighter fitting patch with solvent and scrub back and forth inside the bore for a couple of minutes. At the end of these steps, I let the patch exit the muzzle and remove it from the jag. If I feel the need to, I might scrub with a brush at this point. I usually soak the brush with solvent and pass it through the bore 8-10 times before pushing a couple of clean, tight-fitting patches through, removing them when they exit the bore. They will usually have dark brown streaks on them, indicating carbon in the grooves of the rifling. Now I repeat the wet patch sequence one time, letting the barrel soak for several minutes before pushing a clean, dry patch through. If that patch comes out clean, I’m done. If not, I repeat the process until it does.

Breaking in a barrel is not the same as cleaning a barrel.

I won’t get into the merits of barrel break-in here, other than to point out the differences between that and normal maintenance cleaning. For focused copper removal, I do the above procedure first. Then I repeat the patch sequence with Sweet’s instead of Shooter’s Choice. It’s important to note that the carbon fouling must be removed before you can get to the copper. I end the break-in the same way I end the normal cleaning; when the patches come out clean. Copper streaks will be bright blue.

Copper fouling during barrel break-in

Blue streaks indicate copper fouling being removed

There are a lot of tools and chemicals for this job, and I’ve tried most of them!
Rifle cleaning tools

Assorted tools, patches, and brushes used for routine bore cleaning

I like Dewey coated rods. I use the 22C-44 and a 30C-44. With those two rods, I can clean everything from a 22-250 up to a 338 Edge. The 44” rods allow the brush or jag to exit the muzzle of a 30” barrel with a brake. I also have several Dewey brass loop rods with slotted patch holders. These are used for cleaning the chambers of rifles as well as pistol bore cleaning. I like pierce-style jags and round cotton patches that give a tight fit in the bore. Sinclair/Brownells has a good assortment of sizes that will work for every caliber. Large square patches work well for cleaning chambers. I use bronze brushes for general-purpose bore cleaning, or nylon brushes for copper removal. The two chemicals I use now are Shooter’s Choice for general-purpose bore cleaning and Sweet’s for copper removal. I follow the directions on the bottles and have had great results. The only time the Sweet’s comes out is during barrel break-in. There are many good bore guides available. I use MTM (Pro Shot) guides.

Rifle cleaning chemicals

Cleaning and lubrication chemicals

Cleaning rod bore guide

MTM bore guide


 Cleaning a precision rifle’s barrel doesn’t necessarily make it shoot better.

In fact, cleaning the barrel can make the first several shots land in a different spot than a fouled barrel’s point of impact, especially at distance. In my experience, even if they hit the center of the bull at 100 yards, the first few rounds fired from a clean barrel will be 20 to 40 feet per second slower than the rest. That will surely induce some vertical spread at long range. It can be accounted for, but why have to account for another variable? A fouled barrel has given me consistent performance from shot to shot.

A good barrel should shoot accurately for a long time without cleaning.

I am a results-oriented guy who doesn’t like to waste time. I keep careful notes about my rifles and shooting. If something doesn’t produce measurable results, I’ll probably quit doing it. According to my barrel log, on two separate occasions I fired over 600 shots from my Hart-barreled 260 Remington without cleaning it. I don’t remember why I cleaned it, but I know it wasn’t because it stopped shooting well. That barrel has over 3000 rounds through it now, and it still produces ½ MOA groups. I also remember firing over 600 rounds through a 338 Edge +P without cleaning it. At the end of that string, that Hart barrel was shooting sub-tenth groups. I didn’t bother running a patch down the bore.


It’s important to note that while I don’t scrub the barrel regularly, I do clean the chamber and action as often as I can.

A dirty chamber can cause a lot of problems in the field, as can dirty triggers, bolt lugs, etc. That, as well as wiping down the exterior surfaces and careful cleaning of the scope is done every time I return from the field.

Is cleaning a long range precision rifle different from cleaning a factory rifle?

You bet. The rifles I’m using as examples for this article are precision field guns, not safe queens. They wear corrosion-resistant stainless steel barrels. The barrels and actions are finished with Cerakote. They are designed to be used in all conditions and perform in all conditions.

The most important thing that differentiates a mass-produced factory rifle from a purpose-built precision rifle is the quality of the barrel’s finish. Custom barrel makers like Hart, Krieger, and Broughton spend a considerable amount of time and effort finish-lapping their barrels. That produces a shiny, slick surface inside the barrel that carbon and copper have a hard time sticking to. Contrast that to a typical factory rifle that uses assembly line barrels with tooling marks across the lands and grooves. I remember a friend of mine commenting on what he thought was rust inside the muzzle of my favorite 338 Win Mag, a Ruger M77 with a stainless barrel. What he was seeing was copper residue stuck in the tooling marks of the rifling. I could run patches through that Ruger for two days without getting a perfectly clean one. I finally stopped trying.  That rifle shoots sub-MOA consistently and has never let me down. That’s the whole point, isn’t it?

Thanks for reading. Please share this article and  leave a comment below. 
See you next time!

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  • Will C.
    February 15, 2016 at 08:46

    Thank you for this article. I too used to clean my rifles constantly. Some times, I’d spent twice as long cleaning them as I did shooting them at the range that day. Now, I’m much more lax, and several hundred rounds go by before I clean the bore. On my carbines, that number can be several thousand rounds. With my precision builds, I’ll clean the bore every 500 rounds or so, but not because I noticed a drop in performance. I do it just because I figure it might be a good idea.

    I would like to hear your thoughts on barrel break-in. I’ve spoken with barrel makers at SHOT about this, as well as veteran high power shooters, and there are so many different opinions. I normally break them in by shooting them, and then giving them a good cleaning after the first range session. Then, they won’t get cleaned again for some time. I’ve tried the – shoot once clean once, shoot five clean once – method, but never noticed a benefit from this tedious, time consuming procedure. Then gain, I’m not shooting these rifles much beyond 500 yards.

    Again, thanks for the great article.


  • Pete hubbard
    February 15, 2016 at 11:44

    Excellent info and I use Hart almost exclusive as custom builds.

    • SamMillard
      February 15, 2016 at 19:02

      Glad you liked it. Thanks for the feedback.

  • Aaron C
    April 8, 2018 at 17:49

    Thanks for sharing your knowledge. Is very helpful. Your videos are well done and for a novice like myself its good to hear advice that’s based on results. I just did my second custom build in a 300 RUM with a Proof research barrel, Lone Peak Fusion Ti Action and am just breaking in the barrel and want to do it “right”. Thanks again.

  • Terry Paul
    July 21, 2018 at 12:35

    Sam: My company is Sharp Shoot R Precision. I’d like to give you a challange. I’m going to send ypo a sample of WipeOut Brushless Bore Cleaner. The challenge is to put WipeOut in a gun you think is clean. Our product is used by people who shoot alot and need premier accuracy. I want to hear your results. Our products are odorless, brushless, and do not contain acid or ammonia. Like your self ….we are educators who want to take cleaning a firearm out of the “dark ages”. Call if you get the time…or send me an address ….where to send samples.
    Terry Paul

  • Vern Jansky
    November 8, 2018 at 17:52

    With regards to nylon brushes, have you used Brownells “Heavy Weight Nylon” bore brushes or IOSSO Products nylon bore brushes, and what are your thoughts on either or both?

    • SamMillard
      November 9, 2018 at 05:43

      I don’t remember using either of them. I use the bronze core brushes that direct thread to my Dewey rod.

  • Zach Hudson
    January 3, 2019 at 10:05

    How do you clean/lube the bolt?

    • Sam
      Sam Millard
      January 3, 2019 at 10:22

      I wipe it down and put a small dab of high-pressure grease behind the lugs. Sometimes a drop of oil where it rotates in the rear of the receiver. I go out of my way to make sure no oil or grease ends up in the bolt nose/chamber area.

  • Jim Barrett
    July 14, 2019 at 09:52

    Why would the first few rounds be slower in a clean barrel than the remaining in a fouled barrel…?

    • Sam
      Sam Millard
      July 16, 2019 at 10:15

      I assume it’s because the fouling tightens the barrel/bullet clearance up a tiny amount, causing higher pressure.

  • Robert Horning
    May 24, 2020 at 12:03

    I enjoy your articles and videos very much. Quite well done, professional, and informative.

    My question is in regard to us “poor boys” running various factory barrels instead of the premium offerings. What bore break in and cleaning regimen do you advise for them? Surely, there would be quite a difference.

    • Sam
      Sam Millard
      May 26, 2020 at 04:08

      I would clean it well before shooting it for the first time, then figure out what I had to do to keep it shooting.

  • Kevin
    September 12, 2020 at 01:37

    Informative and no nonsense advice as ever. Thanks


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